What if your computer memory system crashes, and you don’t have any backup of the data stored elsewhere? Clearly, that will put you in a difficult situation; especially in a professional scenario.

The RAID (redundant array of independent disks) data storage system is designed in such a way that data recovery is possible even if a storage device fails. RAID disks (tape disks or magnetic disks) are so configured that they allow redundancy (mirroring or repetition) of data to take place. Some RAID architectures are designed for faster read operations, some for faster write operations, while others are designed for both, faster read and write operations.

The following is a discussion on RAID 1 and RAID 5 architectures, along with an overview of their main differences.


RAID 1 architecture uses the concept of disk mirroring. In it, data is copied from one disk to another at the time that it is entered, creating a replica or mirror of it. Thus, if one disk crashes, the other can still continue working, and the data is retained.

For hardware RAID 1 implementation, a minimum of two physical hard disks are needed. In the software-based RAID 1 implementation, two separate volumes of a single hard disk are utilized.

RAID 1 is designed for faster read operations as compared to write. While using any modern multi-threaded operating system (Windows or Linux), RAID 1 array gives better performance for split seeks, that is, access of same memory location by two different users. For

Types of Data Storage: Primary and Secondary Storage

The most important computational unit is the CPU, which requires a large amount of data for executing various instructions. This data is in the form of bits and bytes. This binary digital data is stored on the storage devices or memory. Initially, all the storage devices were referred to as memory, but these days, memory means the semiconductor storage device called the Random Access Memory or RAM. Early computers used delay lines, magnetic drums, William tubes etc. for storing data. These devices provided an extremely low access rate. But with the invention of transistors, radical changes were introduced in the memory implementation techniques. Depending upon the storage capacity, access rate and volatility, data storage can be divided into primary storage and secondary storage.

Primary Storage

Primary storage or the commonly referred Random Access Memory is the memory which is directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU constantly reads instructions from this memory. The capacity of RAM in terms of data storage is less, but it offers a very fast access rate, thus making it pretty expensive. It offers minimum latency, hence suitable for transactional environment databases. Primary storage also consists of processor registers and processor cache.

Processor Registers: Processor registers, located within the CPU are used to load instructions for execution by the CPU. Registers hold data word of size 32 or 64 bits. They are the fastest means of data storage. But they are capable of storing data of a very small size.
Processor Cache: Processor

How to Fix Java Virtual Machine Launcher Error

Tip to fix Java virtual machine launcher errorJVM Function
The Java virtual machine is responsible for memory allocation and garbage collection, along with interpretation of byte code to machine code.
The Java runtime environment (JRE) is mandatory to be installed on your computer for certain applications to work properly. The main component of JRE is the Java virtual machine (JVM), which helps run Java applications. A java file, on compilation, produces a ‘.class’ file instead of an executable file. This class file contains Java byte code, which the JVM interprets into machine-readable instructions. JVM is platform-independent, since it provides a machine interface that does not depend on the underlying operating system and hardware architecture.There may be times that you may get error messages while launching JVM, in situations such as booting the computer, playing games like Minecraft, or opening certain Java-based applications. Here, we have compiled a few solutions that may help you fix Java virtual machine launcher errors on Windows XP, Windows 7, and Windows 8.
Error Message #1: Could not create the Java Virtual Machine.
This error message is commonly encountered while trying to start Java-based games, such as Minecraft.

➦Open the control panel.
➦Go to system.
➦Go to advanced systems properties.
➦Click ‘environment variables’.
➦In system variables, click ‘new’.
➦Put new variable name: _JAVA_OPTIONS
➦Put new variable value: -Xmx512M
➦Click ‘ok’.

-Xmx/s is the configuration parameter that controls the amount of memory Java uses.

Xmx is the maximum heap memory size that can be allocated.

How to Fix an ‘Invalid Partition Table’ Error

Tip to fix an 'invalid partition table' errorManufacturers now use GUID partition systems that allow a maximum of 128 partitions, unlike the older Master Boot Record (MBR) which allowed only 8.
Partition tables or partition maps store information to help load the operating system into the computer. The BIOS is a firmware that stores partition tables and the associated memory data. It’s the first thing that loads when you switch on the computer. The BIOS is required to check whether the partitions are in working condition. The most common use of the BIOS is to format your system or re-install a better operating system (OS).

So imagine how you would feel when your OS doesn’t load, and shows a message Invalid Partition Table. Partition systems of old contained the Master Boot Record, which was responsible for the booting of the system. Since Windows Vista, manufacturers have started using a new system, GUID Partition Table (GPT), which allows the computer to be split into multiple partitions, extremely useful for dual-booting systems.
Operating system error
An invalid partition table error occurs due to the following reasons:

The MBR is trying to boot from some other device than the DVD-ROM, which is the first option in the boot priority order.
When some other device is connected to the USB port, like a flash drive or an external hard disk drive (HDD).
There is no operating system installed on the computer.

In the following sections, we shall tell you how to

Different Types of Computers

Types of computersA computer is one of the most brilliant inventions of mankind. Thanks to computer technology, we have been able to achieve storage and processing of huge amounts of data. We can rest our brains by employing computer memory capacities for information storage. Owing to computers, we have been able to achieve higher processing speeds, carry out critical transactions and that too with great precision and accuracy.

Computers of the earlier times were of the size of a large room and required to consume huge amounts of electric power. However, with the advancing technology, computers have shrunk to the size of a small watch.

Depending on their processing powers, size and area of use, they have been classified into various types. Based on the operational principle, computers can be classified as analog and digital. Based on their processing powers, they can be categorized as mainframe and microcomputers. Based on the usage, they can be grouped under desktop computers, laptops, tablets, netbooks, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and even tiny wearable ones. Here’s more on the different types of computers.

Basis of Classification

Operational Principle
Size and Processing Power

Based On Operational Principle

Analog Computer (Slide Rule)
digital computer

Operational Principle

✦ Analog Computers: These are almost extinct today. These are different from a digital computer because an analog computer can perform several mathematical operations simultaneously. It uses continuous variables for mathematical operations and utilizes mechanical or electrical energy.

✦ Digital Computers: They use digital circuits

Best Computer for the Money

Best computer for the money - Falcon Northwest Mach VNew models of laptops and desktops keep getting introduced into the market practically every day, and this only adds to the confusion in the minds of customers. So, the best way to decide which one to buy for yourself is to see what you really need. The first step, which is pretty important, is to decide between a desktop and a laptop computer. Once this has been decided, move on to deciding the other major aspects, like memory, operating system, hard disk space, processor speed, monitor, graphics card, price, etc.

To make the task ahead simpler for you, here is a list of the best laptops and desktops that are available in the market, both, for daily use and for gaming purposes, along with their technical specifications and prices. Take your pick…

Best Desktops for Everyday Use

Computers for normal, everyday use need not be packed with top-of-the-line specs, which is the norm for gaming PCs. This is the reason why normal PCs cost a lot less than the ones meant for hardcore gaming. The options available in the market are plenty, but here, we have listed only the top rated PCs, which you should consider if you are in the market for a new machine meant for everyday use.

Dell XPS 27 All-in-One

3.1 GHz Intel Core i7-4770S
2 GB Nvidia GeForce GT750M
2 TB 7200 RPM HDD
Microsoft Windows 8

Price: $2,248
The standout feature

How to Protect Yourself from Social Engineering Attacks

Tip to protect yourself from social engineering attacksWhat is Social Engineering?
The art of psychologically manipulating people so that they give up confidential/sensitive information is known as social engineering. These are non-technical attacks, which rely on fooling people into deviating from regular security procedures. People engaging in this criminal act either target individuals for things such as bank information and passwords, or they might target the employees of entire organizations for sensitive corporate information, which they can then use to make a lot of quick money in the market.

The use of social engineering has increased drastically, because it is much more difficult to hack into someone’s software/password than it is to win their trust and exploit them to gain information that is wanted. No matter how technically sound the security chain might be, information is always susceptible to attack if the people involved with the information are vulnerable. The key to protecting oneself from such fraud is to develop a good sense of who and what to trust. The various types of social engineering that one can be targeted with are based on common attributes of the human thought process while making decisions. The various biases that a human may have towards a person or a situation are exploited in an endless list of combinations, some of which we will look at below.

Types of Social Engineering
Pretexting: This is one of the most common threats of social engineering, in which conmen create an imaginary

Types of Computer Security: Threats and Protection Techniques

Computer securityComputer security is that branch of information technology which deals with the protection of data on a network or a stand-alone desktop. As every organization is dependent on computers, the technology of its security requires constant development. Here are the different types of computer security.
Hardware Security
Even if the computer is not plugged into a network, a person can open its cabinet and gain access to the hard drives, steal them and misuse or destroy the data saved on them or, damage the device altogether. It is also necessary to remember that in case one dissembles his computer hardware, the risk of losing coverage of warranty becomes very high.
The security of computer hardware and its components is also necessary for the overall protection of data. If a stand-alone system contains some important or classified information, it should be kept under constant surveillance. Locking system for a desktop and a security chain for a laptop are basic security devices for your machine. Certain disk locks are available in various sizes, which control the removal of the CPU cover protecting internal components of the system.
For example, you will find disk/tape drive lock, computer case lock with cable and padlock, security cables, etc. A disk lock guards all the internal access points located on the CPU and protects them.
Software Security
Network Security
Computer networks are an integral part of any organization these days, as they facilitate the free flow of data and services to